The barren summit of Mount Etna
In the foreround of this photograph are the airfall tephra (ash) fields cloaking the summit of Mount Etna. The lack of vegetation is due recent volcanic activity covering the slopes in ash. The altitude of the volcano causing a lowering of temperatures and snow coverage in winter also limits pioneer communities colonising this lithosere.
The red soil on the right hand side of the image is 'Bole' - formed when a lava flow passes over a soil and bakes it. The red colour is due to the oxidation of the iron minerals in the lava.
Copyright - JAR Photographs