Study Guide – Population


Key questions that will be answered…..


How does population change?

Why is population change seen as an open system?

How do population growth rates vary globally?

How does global population vary in distribution and density?

What do the terms fertility and mortality mean and how do we measure them?

What are the main factors that influence fertility and mortality rates? 

What does the Demographic Transition Model show?

What do population pyramids tell us about a population?

Explain the population structures for countries in different stages of the DTM.



What is the role of migration in population change?

What are the different types of migration?

What are the economic, social and environmental impacts of migration on exporting regions?

What are the economic, social and environmental impacts of migration on receiving regions?

Why do refugees and asylum seekers choose to migrate into countries with developed economies?

What are the consequences of the migration of refugees and asylum seekers?

Why do different groups hold a variety of opinions concerning refugees and asylum seekers?



What are the causes and impacts of changing gender structures?

How do gender structures change as countries pass through the demographic transition?

What factors can lead to an imbalance in the gender structure of a population?

What are the social, economic and political impacts of changing gender stuctures?



What are the demographic challenges facing countries?

How do you work out the dependency ratio and why is it important?

What are the demographic causes of an ageing society?

What issues are faced by ageing societies?

What are the demographic causes of a youthful society?

What issues arise as a result of high birth rates and high death rates?

How do governments influence fertility rates, and address high death rates?

What policies are used to solve the demographic challenges of ageing and youthful societies?



Key terms you should be familiar with….

Crude Birth Rate

Crude Death Rate

Infant mortality Rate


Fertility rate

Mortality rate

Life Expectancy

Replacement level

Growth Rate

Doubling time

Expanding population

Decreasing population

Stabilising population

Demographic challenges

Ageing populations

Youthful populations

Demographic Transition Model

Population pyramid



Exporting regions

Receiving regions


Asylum seeker


Dependency ratio

Pro-natalist policy

Voluntary migration

Forced migration

Population pyramids


Books – Waugh, Chrispin

Geofactsheets –

Websites –, CIA world factbook

Others -