In a rivers study, you will be measuring parameters such as::
Measurement  Equipment  Units  Chart and Graphs 
Width  Tape Measure  cm or metres  n/a 
Depth  Metre Rule  cm or metres  n/a 
Velocity  Flow Meter  time in seconds how long it takes the propeller to travel the total distance of the screw!  m / sec
(metres per second) 
Convert your time in seconds into the velocity in metres per second using the  Flow Meter Calibration Chart 
Discharge  You don't measure this  but you can calculate it as long as you have take your width, depth and velocity measurements!  cumecs
(cubic metres per second) 
Calculation (see Waugh)
Q = V x A 
Wetted Perimeter  Tape Measure  
Substrate  Your own assessment of the % of: cobbles, gravel, sand and silt on the bed of the river within a 50cm x 50cm area  Must add up to 100%  e.g. 70% cobbles, 20% gravel, 10% silt 
n/a 
Aquatic Invertebrates  Kick Net, Tray, Identification Sheet, Biological Indicator Sheet 
n/a 
Identification Sheet 
Bank Erosion  15cm (6") nails  buy them from B&Q / Homebase! 
cm 
n/a 
Water Turbidity  Clear plastic bottles  e.g. 50cl volvic / cola bottles 
Shake bottles  time in seconds how long it takes for the froth to clear 

Water Temperature  Thermometer 
^{o}C 

Riparian Vegetation  Quadrat 
% vegetation cover 
Vegetation Identification Sheet 
Water pH  Nutrafin pH Test Kit  buy from Shirley Aquatics  should be about pH7 close to neutral 
pH 
If measuring a small stream/river pH may not give good results 
Water conductivity  Conductivity probe  measures the amount of salts present in the water  the higher the reading the greater the level of pollution 
u/S 
If measuring a small stream/river conductivity readings may not give good results 
In the exam you may be tested on your ability to interpret the following types of data presentation;
You will need to know how to use the following data interpretation skills;
You need to understand how to use the following statistical calculations to measure central tendency and significance;
What else do you need to be able to do for the exam?