In a rivers study, you will be measuring parameters such as::

Measurement Equipment Units Chart and Graphs
Width Tape Measure cm or metres n/a
Depth Metre Rule cm or metres n/a
Velocity Flow Meter - time in seconds how long it takes the propeller to travel the total distance of the screw! m / sec

(metres per second)

Convert your time in seconds into the velocity in metres per second using the - Flow Meter Calibration Chart
Discharge You don't measure this - but you can calculate it as long as you have take your width, depth and velocity measurements! cumecs

(cubic metres per second)

Calculation (see Waugh)

Q = V x A

Wetted Perimeter Tape Measure    
Substrate Your own assessment of the % of: cobbles, gravel, sand and silt on the bed of the river within a 50cm x 50cm area Must add up to 100% - e.g. 70% cobbles, 20% gravel, 10% silt


Aquatic Invertebrates Kick Net, Tray, Identification Sheet, Biological Indicator Sheet


Identification Sheet

Biological Indicator Sheet

Bank Erosion 15cm (6") nails - buy them from B&Q / Homebase!


Water Turbidity Clear plastic bottles - e.g. 50cl volvic / cola bottles

Shake bottles - time in seconds how long it takes for the froth to clear

Water Temperature Thermometer


Riparian Vegetation Quadrat

% vegetation cover

Vegetation Identification Sheet
Water pH Nutrafin pH Test Kit - buy from Shirley Aquatics - should be about pH7 close to neutral


If measuring a small stream/river pH may not give good results
Water conductivity Conductivity probe - measures the amount of salts present in the water - the higher the reading the greater the level of pollution


If measuring a small stream/river conductivity readings may not give good results

In the exam you may be tested on your ability to interpret the following types of data presentation;

You will need to know how to use the following data interpretation skills;

You need to understand how to use the following statistical calculations to measure central tendency and significance;

What else do you need to be able to do for the exam?